—Oghuz Turks—

The Oghuz-Turk branch is the most populous, numbering more than 150 million.

–Turkey and Anatolian Turks
Population: Turkey-75,627,384 (2013); Bulgaria-800,000 (2011); Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus-500,000 (2011); Syria-200,000 (2013); Iraq-3,000,000 (2009); Other countries with populations of Anatolian Turks are Germany, Algeria, France, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Australia, and Sweden.
Religion: Sunni Islam and a minority of Alevism.
Facts: The largest covered bazaar in the world is in Istanbul, Turkey; Sabiha Gökçen was Turkey’s first female pilot and the world’s first female combat pilot; Istanbul is the only city in the world that is located in two continents; Coffee was first brought into Europe by the Ottomans.

–Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis

Population: Azerbaijan-9,356,500 (2013); South Azerbaijan (Iran)-30,000,000 (2013); Turkey-2,000,000 (2013); Russia-1,500,000 (2012); Other countries with Azbaijani populations are Georgia, Ukraine, Germany, and Belarus.
Religion: Mostly Shia Islam, but a minority follow Sunni Islam, Alevism, Baha’i, and Zoroastrianism.
Facts: The world’s first oil well was in Azerbaijan; The world’s tallest flag pole and largest flag are in Azerbaijan.

–Gagauz Turks

Population: Gagauzia (Moldova)-150,000 (2013); Ukraine-32,000 (2001); Turkey-15,000 (2013); Russia-13,700 (2002)
Religion: Orthodox Christianity
Fact: Although the Gagauz are Turkic, their origins are still unknown, with over 20 theories.

–Turkmenistan and the Turkmen

Population: Turkmenistan- 5,125,693 (2012); Iran-1,328,585 (2012); Afghanistan-1,687,086 (2012); Other countries with Turkmen populations are Pakistan, Russia, and Ukraine.
Religion: Sunni Islam
Facts: Like the Tatars, the Turkmen have spread out far into many regions in the Middle East, Central Asia and even possibly into China. Because of this, many Turkic groups have Turkmen origins.

–Qashqay Turks
Population: Iran-1,714,000 (2010)
Religion: Shia Islam
Facts: The Qashqay are renowned for their rugs and other wool products they make.

–Khalaj Turks

Population: Iran-42,100 (2000)
Religion: Shia Islam
Facts: Khalaj Turkic is believed to be one of the oldest forms of Turkic spoken today and the closest to Old Turkic.

–Avshar Turks

Population: Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Afghanistan-600,000 (2000)
Religion: Shia Islam
Facts: The Avshar are still mainly nomadic; Their northern dialect is closely related to Azeri and their southern dialect is closer to Qashqay.

–Ahiska Turks
Population: Azerbaijan-110,000 (2006); Russia-90,000 (2006); Kazakhstan-150,000 (2006); Other countries with populations of Ahiska Turks are Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.
Religion: Sunni Islam
Facts: They’re also known as Meshketian Turks, because they used to inhabit the Meshketi region of Georgia, until they were forced out of the region by the Soviets into Central Asia.

–Salar Turks

Population: Qinghai, Gansu, and Xinjang (East Turkistan) provinces of China- 104,503 (2000)
Religion: Sunni Islam
Facts: They don’t look like it, but their origins are Turkmen. Their ancestors were Turkmen migrants who intermarried with Han Chinese and Tibetans; Their language is split into two main dialects, one has been influenced by Mandarin Chinese and ther other has been influenced by Uyghurs and Kazakh.



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